INTERMODAL INDUSTRY

CONTAINERS

ISO or intermodal containers are standardized, reusable steel boxes used in the intermodal transport of freight in the global market. They are manufactured according to specifications from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and are suitable for multiple transportation methods such as truck, rail, or ship, without having to be loaded and unloaded.

These containers can be used across different modes of transport – from ship to rail to truck, without unloading and reloading cargo. This means that freight can moved from rail, to trucks, to ships, to air without ever being opened, making shipping much more cost effective and providing greater flexibility for international trade.

Containerizing is a way to bundle cargo and goods into larger, unitized loads, that can be easily handled, moved, and stacked, and that will pack tightly on a ship or in a yard. Intermodal containers share a number of key construction features to withstand the stresses of intermodal shipping to facilitate their handling and to allow stacking, as well as being identifiable through their individual, unique prefix and number. (Source: WikiPedia)

Intermodal containers exist in many types and a number of standardized sizes, but most of the global container fleet are “dry freight” or “general purpose” containers, consisting of durable closed steel boxes, mostly of either twenty or forty foot (6 or 12m) standard length, with common heights of 8 feet 6 inches (2.6 m) and 9 feet 6 inches (2.9 m) – also known as High Cube or Hi-Cube containers.

Standard lengths

10, 20, 40, 45, 48, 53 feet

Standard Widths

96, 102 inches

Standard Heights

8, 8 ½, 9 ½ feet

Container capacity is often expressed in twenty-foot equivalent units or TEUs. A TEU is a measure of containerized cargo capacity equal to one standard 20-foot (6.1 m) long container. This is an approximate measure and the height of the box is not considered. For example, the 9 ft 6 in (2.9 m) tall high-cube, as well as 4-foot-3-inch (1.3 m) half-height 20-foot (6.1 m) containers are equally counted as one TEU. Similarly, 45 ft (13.72 m) containers are commonly designated as two TEUs, no different than standard 40 feet (12.19 m) long units. Two TEU are equivalent to one forty-foot equivalent unit (FEU)

 

Ratings

  • Most common rating is 67,200 lbs
  • New types are emerging that are 77,200 (35 Metric Ton)

iso1

20 Foot Container

  • Crossmembers under the floor from front to rear
  • Lift points at 230 7/16 inches top and bottom
  • 8, 8 1/2′ tall
  • Can be lifted with a crane or fork lift

iso2

40 Through 48 Foot ISO

  • 8’6” tall top to bottom
    • 13’6” (162”) height restriction in most states
    • Most tractors in the intermodal industry have 48” fifth wheel height,
      leaving no room for the chassis making the tunnel necessary
  • Crossmembers from rear of tunnel to rear of trailer
  •  Lift points at 471.875
  • Can be lifted with a crane or fork lift
  • Corner casting has 3 holes
    • Uses the front face holes for containment
  • Can also come in an 8’ 6” tall non tunnel type 53 containers

iso3

45 foot containers

  • Lift points at 471.875 and 531.876
    • 2 ½’ added at each end
  • Can be stacked on a 40′ container
  • Significantly more refers are being built as 45′
  • Can be lifted with a crane or fork lift
  • Corner casting has 3 holes
    • Uses the front face holes for containment

iso4

53 Foot Containers

  • 9’6” tall top to bottom
  • 3 1/8″ tunnel on domestic type
  • 4 23/32 tunnel on ISO type
  • Corner castings set up the same as a 40′ container
  • Corner castings for 53′ containers
  • Domestic container has 1” slide pins
  • ISO container has 1 ½” slide pins

iso5

20 Foot ISO Tank Container

  • No crossmembers between the front and rear
  • Lift points at 230 7/16 inches top and bottom
  • 8, 8 1/2′ tall
  •  Can be lifted with a crane or fork lift
  • Has a very high center of gravity
  • Usually needs to be lifted or tilted to drain
  • Does not need to be dockable

iso6

40 Foot Tank

  • Some with crossmembers near the landing gear area
  • Has lift points at 471.875 and bottom
  • 8, 8 1/2′ tall
  • Can have tunnel, or needs a straight frame

iso7

Tube Type Containers

  • Several high pressure cylinders permanently mounted within an ISO frame
  • Piping and controls are usually located on the rear of the chassis

iso8

Flat Racks

  • Flatbeds for ships and trains

iso9

Twist locks

  • Used when the attachment of the container is from the bottom
  • Many different types, styles and designs
    • Standard height for all containers except 53′ which is low profile
    • Twist locks screw down
    • Retractable
    • Ball detent type
    • Cantalever
    • Drop in

iso10

Slide Pins

  • ISO standard is 1 ½” with flats on both sides
  • Domestic 53 containers use 1”
  • Many different styles

iso11

Container Stacking and Handling

Stacking Options

  • One 40 on two 20’s
  • A 20 on a 20
  • One 45 on two 20’s or one 40
  • One 48 on two 20’s or one 40 or one 45
  • One 53 on two 20’s or one 40 or one 45 or one 48
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